CENTRAL ASIA THE CAUCASUS

Journal of Social and Political Studies

A B S T R A C T

KEYWORDS: Afghanistan; ethnic groups, political system; election campaigns, representation of ethnic groups, unity of the state.

Throughout the 20th century, domestic policy in Afghanistan unfolded under the influence of the ethnic factor. In 1929, the mainly Tajik Habibullah Kalakani movement ended the rule of Amanullah Khan; the National Democratic Party of Afghanistan, which split along ethnic lines, was another factor that brought about his downfall. In 1992, the mujahideen came to power; this ignited ethnic confrontation and the country’s de facto division into ethnically homogenous parts. The Islamist Taliban movement,which relied on the Pashtoon majority, established an unprecedentedly cruel regime and made the country the world center of terrorism and extremism.In 2001, the International Conference on Afghanistan held in Bonn could not ignore the role of the ethnic factor; it figured prominently while the Constitution was discussed and later adopted, as well as during the parliamentary and presidential elections